Parthenogenisis as a means of creating a female-only culture has been mooted in a number of feminist SF books, including Ammonite by Nicola Griffith and the Holdfast Chronicles by Suzy McKee Charnas. But could it work?
Well there’s one reptile species, the New Mexico whiptail lizard, that is entirely female. Also, biologists working in zoos have known for some time that various species of sharks, reptiles and birds can get pregnant without male intervention. That includes animals as large as a Komodo Dragon. However, it was uncertain whether this was natural behavior or a stress reaction brought on by living in zoo conditions. Now Nature reports that two species of viper have been proven to exhibit parthenogenesis in the wild. Unlike the whiptail lizard, these are species that normally reproduce sexually, but are now known to use parthenogenesis as well. Those serpents, eh? Always causing mischief for the Patriarchy.
As far as I know, no mammal has ever been seen to exhibit parthenogenesis. Also, given the mammalian chromosome structure, any child of a virgin birth would be female.